Skip to main content

Academic honesty / Referencing: APA Referencing

APA REFERENCING EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENT SOURCE TYPES
ONLINE SOURCES

 

  IN-TEXT CITATION BIBLIOGRAPHY
WEBSITE: Organisation as author Australian Electoral Commission (2018)
or
(Australian Electoral Commission, 2018)
Australian Electoral Commission. (2017). Voting Within Australia: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved May 23, 2018 from http://www.aec.gov.au/FAQs/Voting_Australia.htm.
WEBSITE: Person as author Henley argues that…(2014)
or
(Henley, 2014)
Henley, J. (2014). Mindfulness: A Beginner's Guide. Retrieved May 23, 2017 from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/shortcuts/2014/jan/07/mindfulness-beginners-guide-meditation-technique-treatment-depression.
BLOG:

Mergendoller suggests…(2016)
or
(Mergendoller, 2016)

Mergendoller, J. R. Retrieved 2016, March 7. Research Brief: what can we learn from John Hattie about Project Based Teaching? [Blog post]. Retrieved May 23, 2018 from https://www.bie.org/blog/what_can_we_learn_from_john_hattie_about_project_based_teaching_part_1.
YOUTUBE video (National Geographic, 2017)

National Geographic. (2017). He Grew Up on the Streets, Now He's Making Them A Better Place [Video file]. Retrieved 28 May, 2018 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgHbvz-e2uE.

DIGITAL IMAGE

Image 1: Madagascan wave by Y. Jezequel (2014)

 A caption directly under your image should include the image description, creator and year of creation

Jezequel, Y. (2014). Wave is powerful [Digital image]. Retrieved May 23, 2018 from https://flic.kr/p/o7qXaY.

A corresponding entry should appear in your bibliography list, either integrated in alphabetically with your other sources, or in a separate ‘Image credits’ list

 

BOOKS

 

  IN-TEXT CITATION BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOK - single author

Peake writes…(2013, p. 34).

or

(Peake, 2013, p. 34).

Include the specific page number for all print resources in your in-text reference

Peake, G. (2013). Beloved Land: Stories, Struggles, and Secrets from Timor-Leste. Brunswick VIC: Scribe Publications.

Page numbers for books are not included in the bibliography, except under example 5, below.
BOOK - 2 authors

Bickerton and Klausner argue…(2007, p. 69).

or

…(Bickerton & Klausner, 2007, p. 69).

Use an ampersand instead of ‘and’ within the parentheses

Bickerton, I., & Klausner, C. (2007). A history of the Arab-Israeli conflict. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
BOOK - 3 to 5 authors

Singer, Dover and Newkirk found…(1991, p. 133).
or
…(Singer, Dover, & Newkirk, 1991, p. 133).

Cite all the authors the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent in-text citations, on include the surname of the first author, followed by et al. and the year:

Singer et al. also found…(1991, p. 135).
or
(Singer et al., 1991, p. 135).

Singer, P., Dover, B., & Newkirk, I. (1991). Save the animals! 101 easy things you can do. North Ryde NSW: Angus & Robertson.
BOOK - edited Jarrett hypothesises that…(2011, p. 80).
or
…(Jarrett, 2011, p. 80).
Jarrett, C. (Ed.). (2011). 30-second psychology. Millers Point NSW: Pier 9.
Chapter of a book in which each chapter has a different author

Levy concurs that…(2002, p. 79).
or
…(Levy, 2002, p. 79).

In the in-text reference the author of the chapter appears first, and the specific page number being referred to is included

Levy, G. (2002). Tell the truth, Shimon. In R. Carey & J. Shainin (Eds.). The other Israel: voices of refusal and dissent (pp. 77-84). New York: The New Press.

Include the full page range of the chapter in the bibliography entry
BOOK in translation Harstad asserts… (2012, p. 89-90).
or
…(Harstad, 2012, p. 89-90)
Harstad, J. (2012). (T. Chace, Trans.). 172 hours on the moon. London: Atom.
BOOK - organisation as author

According to Monte Sant' Angelo Mercy College…(2012, p. 12).
or
(Monte Sant' Angelo Mercy College, 2012, p. 12).

Monte Sant' Angelo Mercy College. (2012). Monte Moments: a taste of school life. Rozelle NSW: Thoth Communications.
E-book (available only online) Medecins sans Frontieres states…(2015, p. 45).
or
(Medecins sans Frontieres, 2015, p. 45).
Medecins sans Frontieres. (2015). Nine Million Lives: Short Stories From the Frontlines of Medical Crises [Online book]. Retrieved May 17 2017 from https://www.msf.org.au/free-ebook-nine-million-lives.
Classic work re-published Wells (1895/2002, p. 24) or (Wells, 1895/2002, p. 24) Wells, H. G. (2002). The war of the worlds. New York: Dover Publications. (Original work published 1895).
SECONDARY SOURCE

Goldsmith concluded…(1996, cited in Bell, Staines & Michell, 2001, p. 142).
or
Previous studies concluded…(Goldsmith, 1996, cited in Bell, Staines & Michell, 2001, p. 142)

In your text you are citing both sources: the study you want to refer to, plus the source in which you found the study

Bell, P., Staines, P., & Michell, J. (2001). Logical psych: reasoning, explanation & writing in psychology. Sydney: UNSW Press.



In your bibliography, only provide the reference for the source that you actually read

 

JOURNAL ARTICLES

 

  IN-TEXT CITATION BIBLIOGRAPHY
Journal article: one or two authors Brown and Bobkowski conclude that…(2011, p. 96).
or
(Brown and Bobkowski, 2011, p. 96).
When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time you reference it.

Brown, J. D., & Bobkowski, P. S. (2011). Older and Newer Media: Patterns of Use and Effects on Adolescents' Health and Well-Being. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 21(1), 95-113. Retrieved July 13, 2018 doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00717.x.

The page range of the journal article appears in the bibliography list. Use the ampersand instead of ‘and’ between authors.
Journal article: up to 5 authors Hynd, Holschuh and Hubbard assert that…(2004, p. 142).
or
It has been asserted that…(Hynd, Holschuh & Hubbard, 2004, p. 142).
and then
(Hynd et al., 2004, p. 145).
When a work has 3, 4 or 5 authors, cite all authors in the first citation. Subsequent citations only need the surname of the first author, followed by et al. (with the full stop after al.) and the year/page.

Hynd, C., Holschuh, J., & Hubbard, B. (2004). Thinking like a historian: college students' reading of multiple historical documents. Journal of Literary Research, 36(2), 141-176. Retrieved July 13, 2018 doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7785.2010.00717.x.

The page range of the journal article appears in the bibliography list. Use the ampersand instead of ‘and’ between authors.
Journal article: 6 or more authors Marx et al. suggest that…(2009, p. 325).
or
It is suggested that…(Marx et al., 2009, p. 325).

Marx, F., Chan, M., Brown, L., Green, A., Smith, H., Lilic, D., ...Reardon, S. (2009). Web site usability for seniors. Journal of Computer Interfaces, 43, 323-336. Retrieved July 13, 2018 doi: 10.1134/j.1532-7795.2010.00717.x.

After the sixth author’s name, use … in place of other author names. Then put in the final author’s name. There should be no more than seven names included.

 

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

 

SOURCE TYPE IN-TEXT CITATION BIBLIOGRAPHY
Interview or email Dr. J. Smith, Professor of Oncology at the Royal Hospital for Women, asserts that…(personal communication, March 7, 2018).
or
“Here is the quote from the interview” (Dr. J. Smith, personal communication, March 7, 2018).
Personal communications do not need to be included in your bibliography

 

MUSIC SCORES

 

CLICK HERE for citing musical scores

 

There are many variations of APA available. The number one hint is to be CONSISTENT with the use of punctuation, italics etc.
Top 5 bibliography hints (2mins)

 

Still got a question?
Email the Monte Library